Getting Started

What's New


Related Links

Optional Solvers

Discussion Mailing List

Announcement List



A MATLAB Power System Simulation Package

by Ray D. Zimmerman, Carlos E. Murillo-Sánchez & others

MATPOWER is a package of MATLAB® M-files for solving power flow and optimal power flow problems. It is intended as a simulation tool for researchers and educators that is easy to use and modify. MATPOWER is designed to give the best performance possible while keeping the code simple to understand and modify. It was initially developed as part of the PowerWeb project.


You will be asked to fill out a brief form the first time you download certain software from this site.

(current stable version is 5.1)

See also Optional Packages below.

For full documentation, see the
MATPOWER Users's Manual.

Terms of Use

Please see the LICENSE file for the details. But here is the summary ...

  • Beginning with version 5.1, the code in MATPOWER is distributed under the 3-clause BSD license.
  • MATPOWER is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY.
  • While not required by the terms of the license, we do request that publications derived from the use of MATPOWER explicitly acknowledge that fact by citing [2].
[2]  R. D. Zimmerman, C. E. Murillo-Sánchez, and R. J. Thomas, "MATPOWER: Steady-State Operations, Planning and Analysis Tools for Power Systems Research and Education," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 12-19, Feb. 2011.

Note:  Versions 4.0 through 5.0 were licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and versions prior to MATPOWER 4 use a different license.

Getting Started

System Requirements

To use MATPOWER you will need:

The PSS/E RAW data import function psse2mpc currently requires MATLAB 7.3 or newer or Octave 3.8 or newer. The continuation power flow runcpf() is not supported in MATLAB 7.0.x (requires 7.1 or newer).

Note: MATPOWER 4 required MATLAB 6.5, MATPOWER 3.2 required MATLAB 6, MATPOWER 3.0 required MATLAB 5 and MATPOWER 2.0 and earlier only required MATLAB 4. Some parts of MATPOWER may work on earlier versions of Octave, but it but has not been tested on versions prior to 3.4.


  1. Download MATPOWER. You should end up with a file named, where XXX depends on the version of MATPOWER.
  2. Unzip the downloaded file. Move the resulting matpowerXXX directory to the location of your choice. These files should not need to be modified, so it is recommended that they be kept separate from your own code. Let $MATPOWER denote the path to this directory.
  3. Add the following directories to your MATLAB path:
    • $MATPOWER   — core MATPOWER functions
    • $MATPOWER/t — test scripts for MATPOWER
  4. At the MATLAB prompt, type 'test_matpower' (without the quotes) to run the test suite and verify that MATPOWER is properly installed and functioning.


To run a simple Newton power flow on the 9-bus system specified in the file case9.m, with the default algorithm options, at the MATLAB prompt, type:


To load the 30-bus system data from case30.m, increase its real power demand at bus 2 to 30 MW, then run an AC optimal power flow with default options, type:

    mpc = loadcase('case30');
    mpc.bus(2, PD) = 30;

By default, the results of the simulation are pretty-printed to the screen, but the solution can also be optionally returned in a results struct. The following example shows how simple it is, after running a DC OPF on the 118-bus system in case118.m, to access the final objective function value, the real power output of generator 6 and the power flow in branch 51.

    results = rundcopf('case118');
    final_objective = results.f;
    gen6_output     = results.gen(6, PG);
    branch51_flow   = results.branch(51, PF);

For additional info, see the User's Manual and the on-line help documentation for the various MATPOWER functions. For example:

    help runpf
    help runopf
    help mpoption
    help caseformat

What's New in Version 5.1

Below is a summary of the changes since version 5.0 of MATPOWER. See the CHANGES file in the docs directory for all the gory details.

New license:

New case files:

  • Added four new case files, ranging from 89 up to 9421 buses, representing parts of the European high voltage transmission network, stemming from the Pan European Grid Advanced Simulation and State Estimation (PEGASE) project. Thanks to Cédric Josz and colleagues from the French Transmission System Operator. Please cite this paper when publishing results based on these cases.

New documentation:

New features:

  • Added support for using PARDISO as linear solver for computing interior-point update steps in MIPS, resulting in dramatic improvements in computation time and memory use for very large-scale problems.
  • Added support for LP/QP solver CLP (COIN_OR Linear Programming). Use 'opf.dc.solver' option 'CLP' or qps_clp().
  • Added support for OPTI Toolbox versions of CLP, GLPK, and Ipopt solvers, providing a very simple installation path for some free high-performance solvers on Windows platforms.
  • Network reduction toolbox for creating smaller approximate network equivalents from a larger original case file, contributed by Yujia Zhu and Daniel Tylavsky.
  • Added unified interface to various solvers for mixed-integer linear and quadratic programming (MILP/MIQP) problems.
  • Major update to have_fcn(), which now determines and caches version numbers and release dates for optional packages, and includes ability to toggle the availability of optional functionality.
  • New and updated support for 3rd party solvers:
  • New functions:
    • mplinsolve() provides unified interface for linear system solvers, including PARDISO and built-in backslash operator.
    • miqps_matpower() provides unified interface to multiple MILP/MIQP solvers.
    • miqps_clex() provides a unified MILP/MIQP interface to CPLEX.
    • miqps_glpk() provides a unified MILP interface to GLPK.
    • miqps_gurobi() provides a unified MILP/MIQP interface to Gurobi.
    • miqps_mosek() provides a unified MILP/MIQP interface to MOSEK.
    • miqps_ot() provides a unified MILP interface to intlingprog().
    • mosek_symbcon() defines symbolic constants for setting MOSEK options.

Other Improvements:

  • Cleaned up and improved consistency of output in printpf() for generation and dispatchable load constraints.
  • Modified runcpf() to gracefully handle the case when the base and target cases are identical (as opposed to getting lost in an infinite loop).
  • Optional generator and dispatchable load sections in pretty-printed output now include off-line units.

Bugs fixed:

  • Fixed fatal bug in case_info() for islands with no generation.
  • Fixed fatal bug in toggle_dcline() when pretty-printing results. Thanks to Deep Kiran for reporting.
  • Fixed sign error on multipliers on lower bound on constraints in qps_clp() and qps_glpk().
  • Fixed bug in handling of interface flow limits, where multipliers on binding interface flow limits were off by a factor of the p.u. MVA base.
  • Fixed minor bug with poly2pwl(), affecting units with PMAX <= 0.
  • Fixed error in qps_mosek() in printout of selected optimizer when using MOSEK 7.
  • Fixed bug in hasPQcap() that resulted in ignoring generator capability curves for units whose reactive range increases as real power output increases. Thanks to Irina Boiarchuk for reporting.
  • Fixed several incompatibilities with Matlab versions < 7.3.


There are three primary sources of documentation for MATPOWER.

The User's Manual is included in the distribution (docs/manual.pdf) or it can be downloaded separately from the link above. Previous versions are available here.

Each M-file has its own documentation which can be accessed by typing at the MATLAB prompt:

    help <name of M-file>

Documentation for the case data file format can be found by typing:

    help caseformat

If something is still unclear after checking the manual and the help, the source code is the documentation. ;-)

Tech Notes

There are also two MATPOWER Technical Notes that may be of interest:

[TN1] :  R. D. Zimmerman, Uniform Price Auctions and Optimal Power Flow, MATPOWER Technical Note 1, February 2010.
[TN2] :  R. D. Zimmerman, AC Power Flows, Generalized OPF Costs and their Derivatives using Complex Matrix Notation, MATPOWER Technical Note 2, February 2010.

Publications & Presentations

[1]  R. D. Zimmerman, C. E. Murillo-Sánchez, and R. J. Thomas, "MATPOWER's Extensible Optimal Power Flow Architecture," Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2009 IEEE, pp. 1-7, July 26-30 2009.
(Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/PES.2009.5275967)
Presentation: download slides
[2]  R. D. Zimmerman, C. E. Murillo-Sánchez, and R. J. Thomas, "MATPOWER Steady-State Operations, Planning and Analysis Tools for Power Systems Research and Education," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 12-19, Feb. 2011.
(Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TPWRS.2010.2051168)

Related Links

This section links to third party sites providing MATPOWER-related resources.

Pre-built MEX binaries of high-performance IPOPT-PARDISO for Mac and Linux from the PARDISO Project.
OPTI Toolbox by Jonathan Currie
Provides an easy method to install several high-performance free solvers for MS Windows users, without the hassle of building them from source.
Steady-State AC Network Visualization in the Browser, a web-based visualization tool for MATPOWER test cases, designed to help power system researchers explore and understand the data in their MATPOWER case files.

Optional Solvers

There are a number of optional packages that MATPOWER can take advantage of to provide additional options for OPF solvers. Each is distributed under its own license and must be obtained separately. Please see the individual Terms of Use for details.

BPMPD_MEX MEX-file version of the high performance BPMPD interior point LP and QP solver. Speeds up DC and LP-based OPF solvers, and improves robustness of MINOPF.
CLP COIN-OR Linear Programming solver implements high performance simplex and barrier LP and QP solvers that MATPOWER can use for the DC OPF. Available from
CPLEX Includes high-performance, large-scale LP and QP solvers that MATPOWER can use for the DC OPF. Requires the Matlab interface to CPLEX, available from
GLPK GNU Linear Programming Kit includes large-scale LP solvers that MATPOWER can use for the DC OPF. Included with Octave.
GUROBI Includes high-performance, large-scale LP and QP solvers that MATPOWER can use for the DC OPF. Requires the Gurobi MEX Matlab interface.
IPOPT An interior point optimizer for large scale non-linear optimization that MATPOWER can use for both AC and DC OPF problems. Requires the Matlab MEX interface for IPOPT, available from Pre-built MEX binaries for Windows available with OPTI Toolbox and high-performance IPOPT-PARDISO pre-built MEX binaries for Mac and Linux from the PARDISO Project.
KNITRO A general purpose optimization solver specializing in nonlinear problems that MATPOWER can use for AC OPFs. Requires the Knitro libraries, available from
MINOPF A MINOS-based AC OPF solver implemented as a Fortran MEX file.
MOSEK Includes high-performance, large-scale LP and QP solvers that MATPOWER can use for the DC OPF. Requires the Matlab interface to MOSEK, available from
TSPOPF A package of three AC OPF solvers implemented as C MEX files. Suitable for large scale problems.

Note: For Windows users, one of the best ways to get access to some high performance solvers, without dealing with the pain of building the MEX interfaces yourself, is to install the OPTI Toolbox by Jonathan Currie. The installation is simple and it includes pre-built MEX files for several of the above solvers, including CLP, GLPK and IPOPT.

Discussion Mailing List

An e-mail list has been set up to facilitate discussion of MATPOWER. Only list subscribers are permitted to post to the list.

Feel free to use this list to discuss anything related to MATPOWER, to ask questions about MATPOWER, or to provide feedback to the developers of MATPOWER, such as bug reports, patches or ideas for improvements (though we make no guarantees about if/when they might be included).

Also, if you have any of your own MATLAB power systems code that you would like to contribute, feel free to contact us via this list about making it available on the MATPOWER web site.

Joining the list

To join the MATPOWER mailing list, send a plain-text e-mail to with the following line in the body of the message.


You must send the request from the e-mail address where you want to receive the list's messages. And be sure it is a plain text e-mail, that is, with no formatting, font styles or HTML code.

Sending mail to the list

To send an e-mail to all of the subscribers of the MATPOWER mailing list, simply address your e-mail to Only subscribers are permitted to send e-mail to the list.

Leaving the list

You can unsubscribe from the list at any time by sending an e-mail to with the following line in the body of the message.


List Archives

There is an archive of the MATPOWER e-mail list hosted by The Mail Archive.

It can be searched or browsed by thread or by date.

Note: There have been two URLs published for these archives, so you may find broken links out there pointing to (1), but (2) is the only one that works currently, so just edit the links accordingly.

Guidelines for posting

If you are going to ask a question on this list, please be sure to give enough information that someone has a chance of giving a helpful response. Be sure to start with ...

  • a clear and complete description of what you are trying to accomplish

... and if you have attempted a solution unsuccessfully ...

  • a clear and complete description of what you have already attempted (including a code snippet if possible so we have details)
  • a clear and complete description of the result you expected vs. the result you got (if you got an error, include the full error message)

If MATPOWER itself is not working as you think it should, include ...

  • output of mpver on your system
  • operating system version

Including this kind of information in your request will make this forum more useful to everyone by avoiding the added noise of multiple e-mails back and forth in an attempt to understand the question.

Announcement Mailing List

To be notified when new versions of MATPOWER become available, sign up for the MATPOWER-ANNOUNCE-L mailing list by sending an e-mail, from the address where you would like receive the announcements, to:

Leave the subject line blank. The body of the message should be the single word:


You can unsubscribe from the announcement list at any time by sending an e-mail to with the following line in the body of the message.


There is also an archive of the announcement list hosted by The Mail Archive.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How can I use MATPOWER's OPF to minimize transmission losses?

Assign positive, constant, equal costs to all generators and use the standard OPF. Since generation must equal demand plus losses, if demand is constant, loss is minimized by minimizing overall generation. With equal costs on all generators, MATPOWER's default objective of minimizing total cost is equivalent to minimizing total generation, which is in turn equivalent to minimizing transmission losses.

2. Would you please show me how to use MATPOWER to solve [my homework problem]?

If you're thinking of posting a question of that nature to MATPOWER-L, please don't ... the answer is "No, we won't". We simply do not have the time to understand every type of problem we are asked about and respond with example code to show you how MATPOWER can be used to solve it. MATPOWER solves power flow and optimal power flow problems and has a number of other related capabilities. You need to determine whether those capabilities are applicable to your problem. If you have checked the User's Manual and the mailing list archives and still have questions about MATPOWER's specific capabilities, we are happy to clarify. And if you have specific questions, comments, or suggestions related to using MATPOWER, those are also welcome. Just please don't ask us to do your homework for you.

3. Am I required by the license to cite MATPOWER in publications based on MATPOWER or derived works?

No, but it's still the right thing to do. Please cite the following in your publications that rely on MATPOWER:

   R. D. Zimmerman, C. E. Murillo-Sánchez, and R. J. Thomas, "MATPOWER: Steady-State Operations, Planning and Analysis Tools for Power Systems Research and Education," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 12-19, Feb. 2011.
(Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TPWRS.2010.2051168)

4. Can I use MATPOWER 4.0–5.0 with GPL-incompatible M-files and MEX-files?

I am not a lawyer. However, a GPL v3 section 7 "additional permission" exception is included with the intent to explicitly permit interfacing of MATPOWER with any M-files and MEX-files, regardless of licensing, such as MINOPF, BPMPD_MEX and Matlab's Optimization Toolbox.
MATPOWER 5.1 and later uses the more permissive 3-clause BSD license.

5. Why does MATPOWER power flow not converge?

While there are many reasons for the non-convergence of a power flow solution, the following hints/tips may be useful for debugging the problem.
  1. Check that the data in the case file is consistent with the MATPOWER case data format.
  2. Check that all transmission line data is in per unit. MATPOWER requires the branch data to be entered in per unit.
  3. Check whether there are isolated buses in the case file that are not marked with BUS_TYPE = NONE (4) or if there are islands without generation. This information can be obtained using the routine case_info().
  4. By default, MATPOWER's AC power flow uses a Newton's method to solve the nonlinear power flow equations and, unfortunately, the Newton's method is sensitive to the initial guess given. There is no way to choose an initial guess that always guarantees convergence. The following experiments may be useful in such a case:
    1. Change the starting point (voltage angles and magnitudes) and see if the power flow converges.
    2. Run a fast decoupled power flow (see help mpoption for details).
    3. Run an OPF with active generation fixed (cost-coefficients should not matter), voltage limits relaxed except at generator buses, and reactive generation and branch flow limits relaxed.
  5. AC power flow does not converge if the system load exceeds the steady-state loading limit. To check if this is the case, run a continuation power flow that gradually increases the loading/generation.

        mpcbase = loadcase('casefile');
        mpcbase.bus(:, PD) = 0;
        mpcbase.bus(:, QD) = 0;
        mpcbase.gen(:, PG) = 0;
        mpctarget = loadcase('casefile');
        results = runcpf(mpcbase, mpctarget);

    If the resulting value of results.cpf.max_lam (the scaling factor associated with the maximum loading the system can handle) is less than 1, it indicates that the load for the case exceeds the steady-state loading limit, and loads must be scaled down at least by a factor of results.cpf.max_lam to get a convergent power flow solution.
  6. Try the incremental approach suggested by Jose Marin in these two posts on the MATPOWER discussion mailing list (original outline, additional suggestion).

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